Overview: What Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?
The National Institute of Mental Health defines Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder as a condition that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. An example of such an event could be a natural disaster, a car accident, a sexual assault, a robbery, combat or even a terrorist attack.
Contrary to popular belief, PTSD does not solely happen to combat veterans. PTSD can be experienced by all people, regardless of agem ethnicity, culture, or nationality.
Most people who go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty adjusting and coping; however, with time and self-care, they usually get better. Contrastingly, people who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder often experience intense and troubling thoughts or feelings related to their experience, often which last long after the traumatic event has ended. If symptoms following a trauma last for months or even years, and interfere with day-to-day functioning, it could be a sign of PTSD.
The following information is by the National Center for PTSD:
There are five main types of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: normal stress response, acute stree disorder, uncomplicated PTSD, comorbid PTSD, and complex PTSD.
Normal Stress Response
The normal stress response occurs when healthy adults who have been exposed to a single discrete traumatic event in adulthood experience intense bad memories, emotional numbing, feelings of unreality, being cut off from relationships or bodily tension and distress. Such individuals usually achieve complete recovery within a few weeks. Often a group debriefing experience is helpful. Debriefings begin by describing the traumatic event. They then progress to exploration of survivors’ emotional responses to the event. Next, there is an open discussion of symptoms that have been precipitated by the trauma. Finally, there is education in which survivors’ responses are explained and positive ways of coping are identified.
Acute Stress disorder
Acute stress disorder is characterized by panic reactions, mental confusion, dissociation, severe insomnia, suspiciousness, and being unable to manage even basic self care, work, and relationship activities. Relatively few survivors of single traumas have this more severe reaction, except when the trauma is a lasting catastrophe that exposes them to death, destruction, or loss of home and community. Treatment includes immediate support, removal from the scene of the trauma, use of medication for immediate relief of grief, anxiety, and insomnia, and brief supportive psychotherapy provided in the context of crisis intervention.
Uncomplicated PTSD involves persistent reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, emotional numbing, and symptoms of increased arousal. It may respond to group, psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, pharmacological, or combination approaches.
PTSD comorbid with other psychiatric disorders is actually much more common than uncomplicated PTSD. PTSD is usually associated with at least one other major psychiatric disorder such as depression, alcohol or substance abuse, panic disorder, and other anxiety disorders. The best results are achieved when both PTSD and the other disorder(s) are treated together rather than one after the other. This is especially true for PTSD and alcohol or substance abuse. The same treatments used for uncomplicated PTSD should be used for these patients, with the addition of carefully managed treatment for the other psychiatric or addiction problems.
Complex PTSD (sometimes called “Disorder of Extreme Stress”) is found among individuals who have been exposed to prolonged traumatic circumstances, especially during childhood, such as childhood sexual abuse. These individuals often are diagnosed with borderline or antisocial personality disorder or dissociative disorders. They exhibit behavioral difficulties (such as impulsivity, aggression, sexual acting out, eating disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, and self-destructive actions), extreme emotional difficulties (such as intense rage, depression, or panic) and mental difficulties (such as fragmented thoughts, dissociation, and amnesia). The treatment of such patients often takes much longer, may progress at a much slower rate, and requires a sensitive and highly structured treatment program delivered by a team of trauma specialists.